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Industrial Automation and Control

What is industrial automation and control?

The phrase "industrial control system" (ICS) refers to a variety of control systems and related instrumentation, including the equipment, networks, systems, and controls required to operate and/or automate industrial processes.

What is a variable speed drive?

A variable speed drive's (VSD) primary job is to regulate how much energy is sent from the mains to the process. Drives with variable speeds are located between the power source and the motor. A drive receives electricity from the electrical source, and the drive then controls the amount of power delivered to the motor.

What is motor protection and its importance?

The purpose of motor protection is to guard against internal motor defects and other forms of harm. Additionally, external conditions must be monitored during use or when connecting to the electrical grid so that disruptions can be avoided. For the various motors, protection equipment like circuit breakers and fuses are used. Workers, the motor's control system, the components in its branch circuits, and the motor itself can all be protected from high currents via overcurrent protection.

What are switch disconnectors used for?

A disconnector, disconnect switch, or isolator switch is employed to guarantee that an electrical circuit is totally de-energized for maintenance or service.


What is PQ Metering (PQM)?

When a three phase system needs to be continuously monitored, the PQM is the best option. Current, voltage, actual and reactive power, energy use, cost of power, and frequency is all metered.

What are the different types of electric meters?

Electricity meters come in four primary categories: flat-rate, interval, solar, and smart meters.

What type of meter is used in a residential area?

As the name suggests, a single-phase power meter is a two-wire AC or altering current power circuit. It simultaneously modifies the power's supply voltage. Since it is typically used in residences, it is referred to as "residential voltage."

Why is it vital for me to have a metering system?

Electric meters located at customers' locations are used by energy providers for billing and monitoring purposes. They are usually calibrated in billing units, with the kilowatt hour being the most popular one. Generally, they are read once per billing cycle.


Do abrasives have an expiration date?

The organic elements that may be present in coated abrasive goods eventually deteriorate. Coated abrasive belts and discs should be used up within 10 years after the date of manufacture. This advice presupposes that coated abrasive materials have been properly stored.

What is wet grinding?

The term "wet grinding" refers to the addition of water, emulsion, or oil during the grinding process.

    Wet grinding's primary duties include:
  • lubricating and cooling the finished surface cleaning (removal of the grinding chip)
  • preventing rust on the tool
  • speeding up of the processing
  • enhancing surface quality
  • prolonging the tool's life and protecting it from abrasion

How to apply adhesive tapes?

  • Step 1: Prior to applying the tape, make certain that the area is totally dry and clear of any dirt.
  • Step 2: Please make sure there is no cleaning agent residue left on the surface if cleaning materials have recently been used there, if so use water to remove and then leave to dry completely.
  • Step 3: The tape should be unrolled (if the tape has a release liner remove it now). Avoid touching the adhesive with your fingers at all during this stage as doing so will transfer natural oils to the adhesive side. Additionally, make an effort to adhere the tape to the surface as quickly as possible without trapping any air between them.
  • Step 4: For maximum binding strength, apply some application force. Make sure there is no space left between the tape and the surface it is being applied to, since this could eventually lead to water coming into contact with the tape's adhesive side. The adhesive would become deadened and the tape's lifespan would be shortened.
  • Step 5: The dwell time the tape must be in touch with both surfaces is normally 1 to 24 hours if it has an acrylic adhesive. Try to apply some application pressure with clamps for optimal outcomes during this dwell time.
  • Step 5: The dwell time the tape must be in touch with both surfaces is normally 1 to 24 hours if it has an acrylic adhesive. Try to apply some application pressure with clamps for optimal outcomes during this dwell time.

What is GPH tape and can it be used indoors and outdoors?

In difficult, high temperature applications, GPH tape can take the place of conventional mechanical fasteners and liquid adhesives as a permanent bonding solution. Strength and conformability are well-balanced by the acrylic foam core of this product. This tape can be utilized both indoors and outdoors for a wide range of industrial applications, including electronics, construction, window, door, and sign installation.


What is the difference between a plug and socket?

A socket is fastened to machinery or a building's structure and connected to an active electrical circuit. A plug is the movable connector coupled to an electrically operated device. A male connector, the plug frequently has projecting pins that fit over the holes and female contacts in a socket.

What is an interlock switch?

A switch that, in the event that the machine is opened, turns off electricity to certain components (such as motors and lamps). This is to protect people from harm if they accidentally try to open the machine. Otherwise, known as a "safety switch."

What is an electrical enclosure?

A cabinet or box that shields electrical or electronic equipment and guards against electric shock is known as an electrical enclosure. Typically, enclosures are built of stiff polymers or metals like aluminium, steel, or stainless steel.

What is the difference between electrical wire and electrical cable?

A wire is a single conductor, but a cable is a collection of conductors, and this is the fundamental distinction between wires and cables. Nevertheless, the copper or aluminium used to make these conductors is a common material. The cables are typically bare and twisted. However, some of the cables have a thin PVC covering applied to them.

Explosion Proof

What is explosion proof standard?

An enclosure must be able to contain any explosion that starts inside of it and keep sparks from that explosion from igniting vapours, fumes, dust, or fibres in the air around it in order to qualify for the explosion proof certification.

Do you get LED light fixtures that are explosion proof?

How do explosion-proof enclosures function?

Electrical components such as plugs, buttons, sockets, switches, controllers, etc. are housed in boxes or cabinets known as explosion safe enclosures. They aid in preventing internal explosions from entering the surrounding air, which might otherwise endanger people and property.

What makes a light explosion proof?

Explosion-proof lights must normally be constructed from sturdy, non-sparking material, have a very thick glass globe covering the bulb, and have other safeguards to guarantee the worker's and the surrounding area's safety in the event that an ignition occurs inside the light.

Armature Winding

What instrument is used to measure armature winding?

An ohmmeter can be used to directly measure the resistance of the windings.

What is the difference between armature and field winding?

The winding that receives the DC excitation current is the synchronous generator's field. The winding that the load is attached to is the armature. Small generators frequently have the armature windings on the rotor and the field windings on the stator.

Which materials are used for armature winding?

Copper or aluminium is used to make armature wiring. Due to its greater electrical conductivity, copper armature wiring improves electrical efficiency.

What is the pitch factor of winding?

The ratio of the induced EMF per coil when the winding is short-pitched to the induced EMF per coil when the winding is full-pitched is known as the pitch factor.

Outdoor Lighting

What type of lighting is the best for outdoors?

Indoors and out, LED illumination is the finest option. You can leave LED lights on for extended periods of time without significantly increasing your power bill because they consume significantly less energy than incandescent or even halogen bulbs.

Is warm white or cool white better for outdoors lights?

The main kelvin range you're working with when it comes to residential outdoor lighting is between 2500k and 4000k. Useful advice: Save cooler colour temperatures, between 3000k and 4000k, for trees and plants and use warmer colour temperatures, around 2500k to 2700k, on architectural features.

How do I illuminate my back yard?

You can use spotlights, floodlights, or a mix of the two to give your yard more depth and height. While spotlights will spread a narrower beam of light, floodlights will cast a wider beam appropriate for illuminating a big area like a driveway.

How many lumens must my outdoor lighting be?

Path lighting
100-200 lumens
Flood lights
700-1300 lumens
Step lights
12-100 lumens
Motion Activated Lights
300-700 lumens
Pool/pond lights
200-400 lumens
Hardscape lights
50-185 lumens
Landscape lights
50-300 lumens

What is weatherproof light fixture?

Your lighting device is rated to survive basic wetness and splashing, such as rain or a sprinkler system, if it is specifically branded as "weatherproof."

Indoor Lighting

What are the effects of poor lighting?

Poor lighting at work can affect employees in a number of ways, including eye strain, fatigue, headaches, tension, and accidents. On the other side, excessive lighting can also lead to security issues as well as health issues like stress and "glare" headaches. Both can result in work errors, inferior work, and low productivity.

What type of lighting is best for indoors?

On the colour-temperature scale, LED bulbs at 2700K (the K stands for Kelvin temperature) cast a warm yellow light resembling outdated incandescent lamps, making them an excellent all-purpose option. Bathrooms and laundry rooms benefit from the whiter light produced by bulbs with a temperature of around 3000K.

What kind of light bulb mimics sunlight?

Incandescent halogen lights provide "white light," which is a near imitation of natural sunshine. Halogen lighting has crisper colours and dimmer able lamps. Although they cost more and burn hotter than incandescent bulbs, they are slightly more energy efficient.

How do load shedding light bulbs work?

When a power source is available, they function as conventional bulbs and, at the same time, recharge when the switch is turned on. They continue to operate after a power outage because to the rechargeable battery inside the lightbulb. These can last between two and eight hours, depending on the bulb.

What elements influence the installation of interior lighting?

  • Distribution and Brightness of Light
  • Responsible Energy Use
  • The Look of the Area and the Glare of the Lights
  • The Look of Colour Lighting Flexibility, and Control
  • Illumination of Faces
  • Implementation, Installation, and Maintenance Costs
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